Friday, 16 June 2017

Mostaccioli


At the end of every wine making season, there are two bi-products I make sure I have in my pantry; one is a few bunches of dried shiraz grapes (a variety papa` uses for his wine making) for my cheese board and biscuits, and the other is our vin cotto.  The drying of the fruit has only recently become a passion as I love this small variety of grapes used that contains all those typical flavours found in shiraz wine – touches of berry, coffee, chocolate, black pepper and violets.  The making of vin cotto however has been a family practice passed down from generations.  It is known by regional names such as vinocotto, saba or mosto cotto.  Essentially vin cotto means 'cooked wine' though made from un-fermented grape juice or must and contains no alcohol. I will share our family vin cotto making recipe along with a moreish semifreddo desert as part of my Cucina Conversations edition later this month.

This light agrodolce (sweet & sour) syrup is the perfect balance for sweet and savoury dishes.  Although this ingredient has been utilised by my family for a very long time, in more recent times it has only ever been included  in sweet dishes such as lagana chiapputapanzarotti, ciambelline al vincotto and mamma often uses it within a remedial brew with other wild herbs for a chest cold.  Papa` often talks about nonna's rustic mostaccioli biscuits, known as mustazzuli in their dialect.  Unfortunately this family recipe was never documented, but from my understanding it was very similar to the original ancient base recipe consisting of flour, vin cotto, olive oil and some spices.  If one was fortunate to have access to other ingredients which my grandmother was as they ran a general store, then they were added along with honey.  The more ingredients you add the richer the outcome; and in my search for a recipe from the Lucania (Basilicata) region of Italy, I was able to find several recipes that made reference to similar ingredients.  Some suggested adding almonds while others have also included honey, chocolate and/or mocha coffee. The recipe I share with you here is the closest I could find that fits the description given by papa`.  This recipe has been adapted to include papa`s list of must have ingredients, but mention goes to Il Baronello as I was also inspired by the shaping of Angela's mostaccioli which I totally had fun making.  The traditional shape of mostaccioli in the Lucania region is a slab rolled out to approximately 1 ½ cm in thickness and then cut into diamonds or rectangles, and the way mamma makes them.



Mostaccioli
Makes about 40 biscuits depending on size and shape

Ingredients:
·         160 g whole un roasted almonds (125 g or 1 cup finely ground after roasting)   
·         ½ cup sugar
·         ½ cup honey
·         3/4 cup vin cotto *(refer to note below)
·         1/8 cup vegetable oil
·         3 eggs
·         2 tsp baking powder
·         1 tsp cinnamon
·         1 tsp all spice
·         ½ tsp vanilla extract
·         Finely grated rind of ½ orange
·         Finely grated rind of ½ lemon
·        All-purpose flour (as much as needed) I used 5 cups, and dependant on the size of your       eggs)

*I generally don’t promote products, and as mentioned I made these mostaccioli with our family’s vin cotto; however in order for you to try this recipe you will need to purchase commercially produced vin cotto (unless you also make your own). Below are 2 I recommend as they are the closest to the 'home made' product and are Australian made, in keeping with my philosophy on buying local. As I have not cooked with these products before, I  don’t feel confident highlighting one over the other. Click on their link:

Method:

Pre- heat oven at 180 C degrees

Spread 160 g almonds in a single layer on a baking sheet and roast for approximately 15-20 minutes in a moderate oven, being careful not to burn them.  Allow to fully cool down before grinding finely and weigh out 125 g.

In a bowl sift flour and baking powder and set aside. In a separate bowl, add eggs and beat with an electric beater.  Add vegetable oil, honey and vin cotto to the egg mixture and mix well.  Then add the sugar, vanilla extract, cinnamon, all spice and mix well. Finally add the ground roasted almonds, finely grated zest of half an orange and half a lemon and mix through.

Add the flour and baking powder one cup at a time mixing with a wooden spoon, until you have a consistency of a cookie dough that can easily be rolled out. Knead the dough until all the flour is thoroughly combined. Roll into a ball and place in a bowl covering with plastic wrap. Let the dough rest for about ½ an hour.

Divide the dough into quarters, working with one quarter at a time while covering the rest. Dust your work bench with a little flour and roll out the first quarter of the dough to about a 1 ½ cm thick rod.  Cut to desired length and shape into an ‘S’ shape or cut into the ends and twirl them out.  Lots of creative freedom is given here!


Place the mostaccioli on a line tray and bake for about 10 – 15 minutes, or until they are golden in colour.  They will harden as they cool down.  Cool completely before storing in an airtight container. Enjoy!





Monday, 5 June 2017

Chestnut & Mushroom Ravioli inspired by an Autumn outing in Daylesford, Victoria

The changing of seasons to the much cooler weather of autumn and now winter can be a bit of a blow, but softened knowing that seasonal produce such as chestnuts will be in abundance.  For me it's the season that calls for a drive to the country to take in all its visual beauty. Daylesford, situated north-west of Melbourne is only an hour and a half driving distance away from our home, and has become one of my favourite little escape destination that can be factored in as a day trip. This quaint township and its neighbouring Hepburn Springs, is lined with deciduous trees that erupt into a blaze of colour during the autumn season and with its beautiful mountain scenery, forests, gardens and lakes, has definitely a magnetic pull. This setting became the perfect day trip and an excuse to stop by at a local orchard to purchase some chestnuts on our way back home. 





Although chestnuts are not native to Australia, their introduction to the gold mining areas of Daylesford, Beechworth and the Buckland Valley in Victoria as well as the Blue Mountains in New South Wales dates back to the 1850's with the influx of migrants during the Gold Rush. It's reported that some of the oldest chestnut trees dating back to this period, indicate that miners were most likely to have brought chestnuts with them for consumption on their long journey to Australia and then planting the remaining nuts. However the development of the chestnut industry in Australia - 100 years later, came about with the new wave of Southern European immigrants mainly from Italy and Greece. Not appreciating the basic 1950's Australian diet and craving the foods of their homelands, these "New Australians" who had moved out into the surrounding farming areas ensured they also had their home garden and orchard supplying fruit, vegetables, wine grapes and of course chestnuts. Later on in the 1970's migrants living in the cities would travel to areas in the country every autumn to get their supply of chestnuts. This in turn encouraged farmers to plant more trees on a commercial basis and so by the 1980's the chestnut industry in Australia had truly begun.













Chestnuts in my family have only ever been eaten roasted over a fire, cooked with aromatics and incorporated in sweets such as the panzerotti di castagne whose recipe is found here. So it has been my aim this season to use this flavoursome nut in some savoury dishes like stuffing for quail and a pasta dish of some sort. Whenever I am lost for ideas on pairing ingredients I tend to go to my trusted The Cooks Companion by Stephanie Alexander.  Here I was able to find a perfect match for chestnuts pairing it with the nutty flavoured porcini mushrooms, and what better way to come together than in a pasta dish creating a filling with these two main ingredients and encasing them as ravioli.  It took several attempts and a little tweaking to ensure the flavours were well balanced as chestnuts are naturally sweet and the distinctive strong and unique flavour of the porcini mushrooms needed to be toned down.  So I incorporated more of the swiss brown cup variety and less of the porcini mushrooms. You can also use the white button variety. Sage compliments mushrooms and chestnuts perfectly, so the filling also incorporates a small amount of this herb along with some parmesan cheese and an egg for binding. You can shape the ravioli any way you like, but I chose a mezzeluna or half-moon shape the way mamma shapes hers. As a child, it was my assigned task to securely press the edges with a fork to ensure no filling would escape during the cooking process.  As these ravioli pack a punch in flavour, all that is needed is a very simple crispy sage and butter sauce, an extra grating of parmesan cheese on top and some cracked pepper if desired.



Chestnut & Mushroom Ravioli

Ingredients (makes about 50 ravioli) The quantities for the sauce is for half the ravioli made, while I froze the other 25 uncooked.

For the filling:
  • 300 g fresh chestnuts (200 g of peeled, cooked and finely crumbled chestnuts)
  • 250 g swiss brown mushrooms (cup variety) finely chopped
  • 10 g of dried porcini mushrooms, re-hydrated in warm water, drained/squeeze out excess moisture and finely chop
  • 1 egg
  • 4 medium sized sage leaves finely chopped
  • 30 g grated parmesan cheese
  • 1 pinch salt
For the pasta:
  • 200 g all-purpose flour, plus more for dusting
  • 2 eggs
  • 1 pinch salt
To serve:
  • 20 small leaves of fresh sage
  • 80 g butter
  • 40 g grated parmesan cheese
  • cracked pepper to taste
Method for the Filling: 
Rinse 300 g fresh chestnuts and cut a slash across one side of the shell using a sharp knife. Place chestnuts in a pot full of cold water (enough to fully cover them). Bring to the boil and allow to cook until tender. Duration of time will depend on the size of the chestnut, but approximately 30 minutes. You can check if they are cooked through by inserting a sharp knife into the chestnut like you would through a cooked potato. Drain the chestnuts and allow to cool slightly before peeling both skins with a knife. Finely crumble the cooked chestnuts into a large bowl and set aside.

Finely chop the swiss brown mushrooms and the sage leaves and combine both with the chestnut mixture. Place the porcini mushrooms into a small bowl of warm water and allow them to re-hydrate for 10 minutes. Drain liquid squeezing out as much of the moisture and finely chop the mushrooms. Add the porcini mushrooms to the chestnut mixture.  Combine with parmesan cheese, one egg and season with salt to taste. The mixture should be well combined and allowed to rest while the pasta dough is prepared.

Method for the pasta dough:
Place the flour in a large bowl and make a well in the center. Crack 2 eggs in the center of the well and add a pinch of salt. With a fork or your finger tips, begin to whisk the eggs and incorporating the flour little by little. Continue incorporating the flour until all combined and then begin to knead using your hands to bring the dough together until the dough is smooth and elastic.  Depending on the size of your eggs, you may need to add more flour if the dough is too sticky or a small amount of water if the dough is too dry. NB: this process can also be done using a food processor. Wrap the dough in plastic and allow it to rest for 30 minutes at room temperature.

The pasta sheets can be made using the pasta machine or rolled out very thinly using a rolling pin. Cut the dough into small pieces and keep covered with plastic wrap so the dough does not dry out while working each piece at a time. Using the pasta machine at the widest setting roll out the pasta. With each passing through of the pasta sheet, fold and dust with flour and reduce the setting, working down to the narrow (second last) setting. The pasta sheets should be smooth and thin enough (about 1 -2 mm) to support the filling. Lay each pasta sheet on a lightly floured board and cover with cloth to stop them from drying out.

Once all the sheets have been rolled out, cut each sheet to approximately 10 cm width to allow for the filling and folding over. Keep the sheets covered while filling one sheet at a time to avoid the sheets from drying out.  Place a teaspoon full of mixture on one side of the pasta sheet keeping 1 cm in from the edge and 3 cm apart. Brush some water on the edge of the pasta, then fold the pasta length-ways and seal first on one edge and then cupping your hand around the filling, seal the rest of the edges. Try to push out as much of the air that tends to get trapped inside. 

With a crimped pastry cutter or sharp knife cut around the edges forming a half moon shape.  To ensure a secure seal use the prong of a fork to press down around the half moon shape ravioli creating a pattern. Any pasta scraps can be passed through to make another sheet, and using up all the mixture to make the last of the ravioli.  
























Cook the ravioli in a large pot of salted simmering water for about 3 minutes or until they begin to float to the surface. Meanwhile, prepare the sauce by melting the butter gently in a large shallow fry pan together with the small sage leaves. Take care not to burn the sage leaves. Remove the ravioli with a slotted spoon ensuring that all the water is drained and place directly into the pan containing the sauce. Toss through and serve immediately with a grating of parmesan cheese and some cracked pepper if desired.

Enjoy!

Thursday, 18 May 2017

Cucina Conversations: Recchietelle aka Orecchiette (Little Ears)


I'd like to make a proclamation:  It's not Sunday without a plate of pasta di casa (fresh handmade pasta) for lunch!  As a family it was what we all anticipated and looked forward to and a lovely way to end the weekend.  Mamma would get up early and commence preparing the pasta dough while a huge pot of sugo (sauce) cooked away, slowly releasing its aromas that in turn became our gentle Sunday morning wake up call.  We often joined in to lend a helping hand whilst learning to create varied pasta shapes. If it wasn’t hand cut tagliatelle, strascinati, or fusilli, mamma would make orecchiette to accompany her meat sauce.  The sugo was her one pot wonder serving as the rich condiment to toss the pasta through for our primo piatto, as well as providing the tender portion of meat for our secondo.  The sauce was either flavoured with polpette (meatballs) or ossobuco and sometimes pork, rabbit or quail depending on the season.  Many times the pasta and meat came together in one serving as we preferred. I thank my grandmothers for these traditions, and even though they were from the same region of Basilicata, they came from different townships and had their particular specialty when it came to pasta making.  Mamma learnt to make pasta from both these women, so I will be dedicating some time to adding pasta dishes to the blog and sharing with you the process of making distinctive shapes that mamma has in turn taught me.  

Italians do love to give quite descriptive names to their pasta shapes and it appears that each region has their own name for the same pasta type. Many would know le orecchiette (little ears), traditionally made by hand and nowadays also sold as dried store-bought pasta.   Though orecchiette pasta is more closely associated with the Puglia region of Italy and cooked with cime di rapa (broccoli rabe), this pasta shape goes by different names depending on where it is made.  In Basilicata, Campania and Molise they are also known by their dialect name of ‘recchietelle’, in Abruzzo they are known as 'orecchie di prete' (priest's ears) and orecchini in Lazio.  Le orecchiette whose size is diminutive is joined by its bigger cousin, ‘tapparelle’ - slang for big ears and three times the size. The photo below shows the traditional little ears I made and the next size up; still considered small in comparison to tapparelle and the perfect size for a meat sauce to be mixed through.


This pasta shape may appear challenging to make, however it is one that can easily be mastered with a little practice.  In fact from the first one formed to the last, you will begin to see your skills improve, but then what can be more characteristic than some imperfections; the reality is that no two ears are ever alike, not even when they belong to the rightful owner!  Mamma though, a trained seamstress has always been a perfectionist and fascinates me in the precision in which she makes her orecchiette.  She never owned a pasta machine until later in time, so perfected her skills in making these special pasta types. I've spent some time with her sharpening my skills in making orecchiette, cavatelli and fusilli (also known as ferricelli);  like her I have found pasta making so therapeutic and so much fun especially when a few of us gather together.  

Papa` as usual lends a helping hand and loves to be amongst it all entertaining us with his crafty comments.  With tongue in cheek he would declare: ‘Eh, altro che orecchiette! Implying that they are quite large and no way little as the name suggests; and then with great timing the analogies creep in and he exclaims: ‘mi fischia l’orecchio, qualcuno mi nomina!’ – an Italian saying literally translating as (my ear is ringing, someone is talking about me); an interesting concept also believed to be connected with the evil eye and disfavour.  So my friends beware, if your left ear is ringing as opposed to the right, someone is surely talking bad about you and you are advised to bite your finger so that the perpetrator will bite their tongue! Now enough with the ear fallacies and as my father would exclaim: Quando si mangia?! (when do we eat?!) But before I boil the water and take you through the making of this fresh pasta that is carved with a knife and then turned and cupped like ears - thus its name, a bit about the dishes my fellow bloggers will be sharing.

Throughout this month we have decided to schedule in some fun and will be posting about foods Italians have for some reason or another named after or make references to body parts; some names are quite amusing while others are a little cheeky to say the least. Francesca will tantalise your taste buds with Saltimbocca alla Romana, and as the name suggests, these pieces of veal are so delicious that they’ll just jump into your mouth; Daniela will explore a Ligurian dish with baccala` and potatoes called Brandacujun – a name composed of the words brandare (to shake or toss) and cujun (testicles) …will leave that to your imaginations!!! Rosemarie is making a pasta dish also from Liguria shaped like tummies and called Pansotti filled with a mixture of parboiled wild herbs; Marialuisa will create a Sicilian sweet shaped and named after the breasts of the patron saint of Catania in Sicily called Minne di Sant'Agata and Flavia is baking some well known Italian cookies called Lingue di Gatto whose shape happens to resemble a cats tongue.

Recchietelle aka Orecchiette (Little Ears)



Traditionally the dough for orecchiette uses semola, coarse flour made with durum wheat.  Durum meaning hard, has high gluten content and is considered the fundamental ingredient in pasta making when not using eggs and therefore take a little longer to cook through. In the Basilicata region where my parents are from this pasta shape is served with either a meat based or a simple tomato sauce spiced up with peperoncini forti (chilli). The orecchiette I share here have been made the next size up as they will be served with a beef ragu` sauce, allowing each orecchietta to randomly fill up with pieces of meat, and of course a good grating of pecorino cheese on top.  

Ingredients:
This recipe is only for the making of the pasta, leaving you freedom to make whatever type of sauce you prefer.  Serves 8

2 parts semola flour  - (I used 500 g), plus extra for dusting your work surface
1 part all-purpose flour - (I used 250 g)
1 tsp salt
warm water (I used about 500 ml)

Like most homemade pasta, the orecchiette dough begins with a well.  I like to use a large bowl for this step to ensure no liquid escapes. Mix the two flours and salt together and create a well in the centre. Gradually add the warm water while working in the flour with your fingers or a fork.  The warm water will help develop the gluten in the flour making it very elastic.  Add enough water to ensure that the dough is soft and workable but not gooey. After the dough is mixed, it needs at least 10 minutes of serious kneading on a lightly floured surface until the dough is very smooth and firm. Roll the dough into a ball and cover in plastic wrap to allow for resting for 1 hour.  Shaping the orecchiette is now the fun part.  

Dust the work surface with the semolina flour and cut off a thin strip of dough. Using your hands gently roll this strip into a long, thin sausage about 2 cm in diameter for the medium sized orecchiette.  Then cut the strips into 2 cm long pellets – each of these pieces will be formed into an orecchietta. The individually cut piece is then dragged on a board towards you with a knife, and then turned out over the thumb.  The roughness on the dome of the orecchiette which is quite characteristic of this shape is created when the knife glides over the pasta dough before being turned out.  The pasta can be cooked immediately or air dried and frozen for future meals when one is time poor. 

Below is a visual representation of the steps involved in forming the orecchiette.  A short clip of this process is found on my Instagram account. I hope you enjoy making these 'recchietelle aka orecchiette, and there will be more posts following dedicated to pasta making at The Heirloom Chronicles so stay tuned. Buon Appetito!






























Wednesday, 12 April 2017

Cucina Conversations: Taralli all'Uovo



I recall reading the words of Laurie Colwin that have resonated with me and in turn influenced this post. She wrote, ‘No one who cooks, cooks alone. Even at her most solitary, a cook in the kitchen is surrounded by generations of cooks past, the advice and menus of cooks present, the wisdom of cookbook writers'.  I have been recipe testing these taralli in the last month from a hand written list of ingredients with vague quantities and an incomplete list of instructions to follow; a recipe belonging to my late mother in law, not written by her but by a friend whilst learning to make them. Those who have been reading my blog know that documenting and preserving our family recipes has been my aim from the onset of this blog. I hope that these recipes will also inspire the next generation to create their own versions of dishes, and to add their own flavour and style. It is therefore a cook who has now past - my mother in law whose recipe I have chosen to draw from and the advice and assistance of a cook present - my mother, in the preparation of these taralli all'uovo for the coming Easter.


Hand written and titled by the person who transcribed the recipe, Taralli Bolliti di Giovanna, and in my mother in laws Sicilian dialect known as biscotti scaurati (boiled biscuits) are characterized by the fact that they are boiled before baked, barely sweet and delicately flavoured.  On many occasions we enjoyed these biscuits made by Giovanna for our family celebrations and at Easter time; I therefore never needed to make them myself.  With Giovanna’s passing, many of her recipes left with her, never documented nor cooked by me with her guidance.  So this hand written recipe resurfaced and found its way back in my kitchen via her friend.  Over a coffee we got talking about what an excellent cook she was and these biscuits - whose technical name is taralli due to their shape, shiny appearance and crisp cracker texture.  Like many cooks of this generation, they cooked from experience and intuition and seldom wrote full detailed instructions.  This recipe was noted whilst observing and in certain sections there were gaps that needed to be filled in - such as how long the dough needed to be worked, boiling and baking duration, to name a few.  This is where research and advice of cooks present has assisted me in filling those disparities along with a few too many trials and errors. Admittedly, I have lost count of how many eggs I have used to recipe test these taralli.  I needed to persevere and save this recipes integrity; after all I do consider it an heirloom. With advice from my sister in law and my husband, and an extra pair of hands and guidance from mamma we were able to fill the gaps. Of course with my husbands approval which came through taste testing, I can confidently say we now have Giovanna's recipe trialled and tested, and finally documented.  
Taralli such as the ones mamma makes -  taralli con finocchio are very typical of the southern Italian regions of Campania, Puglia and Calabria, traditionally using simple ingredients - flour, water, oil, salt, and fennel seeds.  Taralli all’uovo such as this recipe are typical of Puglia, so I’m not too sure how this recipe appeared amongst Giovanna’s array of Sicilian biscotti, however I have been told that they've been in the family for a very long time.  The Sicilian version of these taralli, which Giovanna also made have the addition of milk and glazed with lemon scented icing sugar, known as taralli al limone (lemon taralli). Wherever these taralli originated from, she definitely put her own unique stamp on them in her use of spices such as cinnamon and aniseed combined, as well as how she shaped them. Her recipe mentions the use of lard which she liked to include in her baking, but there is an indication of the possible use of olive oil as a substitute. The traditional shape is a ring and after boiling them they are scored along the outer circumference so that they open when baked.  My mother in law would form some as rings and others she would cut into with a knife to create daisies, dog and dove shapes.  The dog and dove shapes have yet to be mastered by me, but I have created another dove shape which I am certain she would have liked. The recipe also uses a great deal of eggs leading me to question how taralli came about incorporating so many eggs. 

Easter and its traditional foods are filled with references to rebirth of all kinds, commemorating Christ's resurrection from the dead but also continuing the European springtime festivals from pre-Christian times that celebrated new growth after the dormancy of winter; the egg is one such symbol of new life.  Why so many eggs you ask?  In the early Christian calendar eggs were forbidden and restricted during the austerity of Lent as were meat and other products derived from an animal. This made them bountiful and exciting forty days later. Those who were lucky to have their own chickens were left with a large quantity of eggs laid and not consumed.  So in the lead up to Easter baking and moving out of this period of abstinence, eggs were used in cooking both sweet and savoury dishes.  Each Italian region has an Easter dish, a specialty pie, a sweet bread and biscuits enriched with eggs.

This month the Cucina Conversations girls have pulled together a collection of recipes to help celebrate Easter.  Whether they were passed down to us and stood the test of time, or favourites from regions of Italy we come from, they will reveal aspects of cooking we have learnt from family and friends along our culinary journeys. So draw some inspiration from these current fellow cooks by clicking on their links below.  The recipes they will share include:
  • Pitta Chijna - a rustic pie filled with cheese, eggs and Calabrian sausage at Marmellata di Cipolle
  • Focaccia Veneta  - a three times leavened Easter cake from the Veneto region at Flavias Flavors
  • Torta Pasqualina  - a traditional ricotta, spinach & egg Easter pie at Pancakes and Biscotti
  • Torta coi Bischeri  - a pie typical of Versilia with a chocolate and rice filling at La Dani Gourmet
  • Crescia Pasqualina - a savoury cheese bread at Italian Kiwi


Taralli all’Uovo
Recipe makes 50 taralli

Ingredients:

800 g all-purpose flour
200 g self-raising flour
10 eggs (room temperature)
½ cup sugar
1 tsp ground cinnamon
1 tsp ground aniseed
4 tblsp brandy
10 tbsp olive oil or melted lard

You can use a stand mixer, or a hand mixer with both whisk and dough hook attachment.  Alternatively a whisk to beat the eggs and good old fashioned elbow grease when it comes to kneading the dough.  It is recommended that the final kneading is done through the pasta machine to ensure a well worked and smooth dough.

In a large bowl, sift together both flours, cinnamon, aniseed and set aside.

In a large mixing bowl add eggs and sugar and whisk until thick and creamy.  Add oil and brandy and continue to whisk together.

On low speed, add 1/3 of the flour mixture and combine well.  It is now time to switch to the dough hook or alternatively begin mixing by hand and incorporate the remainder of the flour. Knead the dough for 15 minutes.  Transfer the dough to a floured board, roll it into a log, cover with cling wrap and then a tea towel and allow it to rest for 30 minutes at room temperature.

Cut dough into manageable pieces and press flat so that they fit through the pasta machine set at the widest setting.  Pass each piece through 10 times to achieve well worked and smooth dough.  Alternatively knead each piece by hand until you achieve a smooth dough. 

Roll out small pieces of dough to the thickness of a finger and turn into a donut shape ensuring ends are pressed together.  You can make them large or small in diameter.  I used the length of my knife as a guide so that all were cut to the same length. Flower shapes can then be created by cutting through half way as you move around the outer circle. The doves are knotted and one end cut into to resemble the doves tail.  Once all taralli are formed, place on a tray and allow them to rest for 3 - 4 hours covered with a tea towel.  During this time, the taralli will increase in size.




Once the 3 - 4 hours are up, bring a large pot of water to a hot temperature, but not boiling nor simmering.  When you begin to see a few bubbles forming, place 5 - 7 taralli in the water, ensuring there is no overcrowding.  Once the taralli rise to the surface remove them with a slotted spoon and place them on a rack to drain and cool down.  Repeat the process until all boiled.  The overall texture of the taralli should be smooth with a sheen.




Using a knife, score the exterior of the taralli and place on a lined baking tray.

Bake in a preheated oven at 180 C (375 F) for 10 minutes, and then reduce to 160 C (325 F) for another 20-25 minutes until cracked and light golden in colour. 

A few points to note:
  • In my first attempt at making these taralli, I didn't use the pasta machine to work the dough and the taralli cracked during the boiling process. I recommend that the dough be kneaded for a longer period of time or use the pasta machine to help with this process.
  • My mother in law would allow them to rest overnight before boiling them. I trialed both methods and found there was no difference with the overall outcome, so I have suggested 3 - 4 hours in this final recipe, but left to the discretion of the reader. 
  • Ensure that you don't overcook the taralli when boiling them, as they turn out chewy and dense, not crispy and light as they should be once baked.  
  • Adjusting the oven temperature after 10 minutes ensures that the taralli have enough time to rise and open where scored and achieve a light golden colour allowing them to dry out evenly at the lower temperature.

I hope you enjoy making these taralli as much as I did and are inspired to create your own shapes. Wishing you all a peaceful Easter. 

Monday, 3 April 2017

Wild Harvest: Marmellata di Fichi d'India (Prickly Pear Jam)




Although not a fruit grown in my parent’s current back yard, it is one that I recall in the back garden of our Victorian single fronted home in Melbourne. The distinctive cultural contrast was evident through the homes facades and what was growing in the back. Whether it was a fig, olive, or nespole tree or a prickly pear cactus, I am certain we weren't the only Italian family in the street with these unusual fruits growing in our front or back yards. Who would think that this ugly, spiky fruit from an invasive succulent plant known by its scientific name as opuntia vulgaris mill or in Italian ficho d'india, would eventually be seen and sold at markets and in fruit shops today.

Once considered a pest in Australia, it is now promoted for its antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties; treating diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity and even hangovers. It is said to be high in amino acids, fiber, B vitamin, magnesium , and iron.  According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the first recorded introduction of prickly pear was attributed to Governor Phillip at Port Jackson in 1788. The reason for its introduction to the new colony was to create a cochineal industry.  A cochineal is an insect that feeds on certain species of cactus and from which a scarlet dye is obtained; at the time used to colour the distinctive red coats of the British soldiers.  Many of these cacti plants are growing wild and seen bordering farm lands and countryside in rural Australia and many still feature in suburban backyards for their fruit. 

This small box of fichi d'india (prickly pears) were passed onto me by papa` from a friend who still grows them in his backyard.  I have to confess though that I cannot recall the last time I ate one since a very young age and only ever eaten raw.  It was also the only fruit growing in our garden that I was not allowed to pick, handle or peel on my own due to its finely barbed bristles and there are many stories of the trials and errors of peeling this fruit, and the pain that it inflicted.  I was told that my husband’s father would undertake a very lengthy process of removing the spikes before presenting them to the family table which consisted of emptying the box on the grass and with a hard broom brushing off their spikes and hosing them down with water.  Then with heavy duty garden gloves and tongs in hand he would inspect each one.  Once at the table the art of peeling a prickly pear involved knife and fork. At no point in time would handling the fruit with your hands be allowed.

The fate of these prickly pears was determined by my love of preserving the seasons harvest and so a jam recipe was kindly forwarded onto me by an Instagram friend Lana @mialanina.  A liqueur recipe using this fruit was also suggested - one that I will surely try. Varied recipe suggestions that came through from others included prickly pear paste, and ice-creams. I was also informed that in Sardegna it is turned into a jam and used as a filling for their renowned tilicas biscuits.   



Marmellata di Fichi d'India (Prickly Pear Jam)


This recipe was kindly supplied by Lana @mialanina

Makes one medium sized or two small sized jars of jam


This is a very simple recipe to follow and the quantity of fruit is purely dependent on how much you have available. When making jam, the fruit pulp to sugar ratio should be equal, so adjust your quantities accordingly.

Ingredients:

10 prickly pears
sugar equal quantity to fruit pulp without seeds
grated rind of 1 organic lemon
grated rind of 1 organic orange

Cleaning the prickly pear according to this recipe requires immersing the whole fruit with skin on in water using tongs and allowing them to soak for an hour, changing the water a few times.  This will soften the spikes and allow for easy cleaning.  I still undertook the method of using knife and folk to remove the skin as seen below, which means that there is no handling of the fruit with bare hands.



Once all the fruit is peeled, place in a heavy based saucepan and on a low heat with lid on cook until the fruit begins to break down, approximately 15 minutes.  The next process is to separate the pulp from the seeds by passing fruit through a sieve pressing with the back of a spoon into a bowl.  The pulp will appear runny similar to a smoothie. You could end the process here and drink it as is, enjoying its nutrients or continue on to make the jam.





Weigh the pulp and transfer into the same saucepan.  Weigh equal amounts of sugar to pulp and place the sugar in the saucepan along with pulp. Cook on low heat and stir occasionally until the setting point has been reached. Meanwhile grate the orange and lemon rind and add to the jam at the very end of the cooking process. I cooked the jam for a further 10 minutes in order for the citrus flavours to infuse into the jam.

Pour the hot jam into one medium or two small sterilized jars and seal while still hot. This jam makes a lovely tart or simply enjoyed for breakfast on toast.  Half of this jam ended up in a crostata which I shared with my parents.  I am currently enjoying the last slice while finishing off this post! :)